Since the 1990s, Vietnam has seen a reforestation trend leading to increases in plantation forest. Considerable efforts, such as the Five Million Hectares Reforestation Program, have been made to increase overall forest cover, but serious deforestation and extensive degradation remain. Therefore, the country is currently working to lower regional deforestation rates through a number of multilateral agreements and national policies that support REDD+ activities.
In November 2010, Vietnam presented its REDD Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) to the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) to obtain support through the FCPF’s Readiness Fund. A National REDD+ Steering Committee was established in January 2011, and in June 2012 the Prime Minister of Vietnam approved the National REDD+ Action program. Later in 2012, the country began the UN-REDD Programme’s implementation phase, which aims to reduce emissions in six Vietnamese provinces
Financing flows and institutions receiving funds committed for REDD+ activities in Vietnam:
The initial institutions or “first recipients” receiving funding for REDD+ activities in Vietnam are predominantly international, with international NGOs and academic institutions as well as multilateral implementing agents receiving 81.9% of the overall funding between 2009 and 2012. Approximately 6.2% of overall committed funds were passed on to second recipients, which include one international NGO and one Vietnamese NGO.
Low percentage transfers of funding from first to second recipients should not be seen as a failure to implement REDD+ activities in Vietnam. First and second recipients may pass funding to other organizations to implement activities, commit funding directly to local communities or households for payments for environmental services, or implement the activities directly themselves. A clearer picture will emerge as additional REDDX data collection continues.
An annual breakdown of funding committed to first recipients reveals that multilateral implementing agents and international NGOs have generally been the largest recipients of annual REDD+ commitments throughout the data collection period (2009-2012). In 2012, 56% of commitments were scheduled to be received by multilateral implementing agents, while 33% of commitments were allocated to international NGOs and academic institutions. The government of Vietnam received commitments representing 10.3% of all committed funds for 2012.