Mexico is home to 64.8 million hectares of forest, which covers approximately one-third of the country’s total land area. Though the Mexico’s overall deforestation rate is low, forest degradation remains high within rural states, where forests are susceptible to land conversion due to agricultural expansion. Additional drivers of deforestation include mining, tourism, and urbanization.
In 2010, the Mexican government presented its Vision for REDD+ (Visión de México sobre REDD+: Hacia una Estrategia Nacional) at the 16th Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC (COP16) in Cancun. The country then went on to develop its National REDD+ Strategy (ENAREDD+), which is undergoing consultation and review processes throughout the duration of 2014.
Mexico’s REDD+ financing landscape is set out below:
Multilateral Institutions account for approximately one half, or 51% of the total amount of REDD+ funding committed to Mexico. This entire amount (US$ 394.8 million) was allocated to the Government of Mexico, who co-financed much of this funding, contributing an additional 43% of the total REDD+ funds committed to the National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR).
Financial flows from donor government agencies represent around US$45.1 million, or 6% of the total REDD+ finance committed in Mexico. The United State Development Agency (USAID) and Norway allocated these funds to a diverse group of recipients, including CONAFOR, Mexican NGOs and academic institutions, as well as multilateral implementing agents.
Private Foundations and international NGOs and academia have both committed approximately US$0.3 million to international and local NGOs/academic institutions for the implementation of REDD+ activities in-country. In general, international NGOs/academic institutions tend to be recipients of REDD+ funding rather than donors. However, in some instances, international NGOs and academic institutions (e.g., Oxfam International) mobilize funding through direct public donations which are spent on activities. International NGOs and academia are also listed as donors when finance cannot be tracked back to another donor organization.
An overview of the REDD+ financing landscape in Mexico shows that multilateral institutions and the government of Mexico are primary contributors, with a vast majority of these funds coming from the World Bank and Mexico’s National Forestry Commission, CONAFOR. A majority of CONAFOR’s commitments represent co-financing to the World Bank loans, which was sent on to second tier recipients including communities and ejidos, as well as consultants.
Large bilateral commitments have also come from donor country governments, with USAID and Norway contributing large amounts (US$29.3 million and US$15.4 million, respectively). USAID passed this funding on to local NGOs and academia, which then passed some funding on to international NGOs and academia as second tier recipients. Norway channeled its funding to the multilateral implementing agent, UNDP, which provided funds to the government of Mexico.
Private foundations provided smaller contributions, which were channeled primarily to local NGOs.
Mexico witnessed minimal commitments and disbursements during the first years of the Fast Start Period (2009 to 2011), receiving US$18.8 million in cumulative commitments by 2011. Commitments then increased exponentially in 2012, reaching a total of US$773.5 million. Disbursements increased as well, amounting to US$44.4 million (or 6% of the total funds committed) by the end of 2012.
The data presented below highlights levels of REDD+ financing committed and disbursed, main donors, recipients and REDD+ activities in the period between 2009 and 2012